REGULATION OF METABOLISM

This chapter talks about the nutritional requirements needed to keep our metabolisms running. How our body regulates the energy for metabolism. Enzymes like vitamins (water-soluble and fat-soluble), minerals (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and chlorine), and antioxidants are needed for different reactions within our bodies. Several hormones also help regulate the metabolism, including insulin, glucagon, the growth hormone, glucocorticoids, epinephrine and thyroid hormones. It also goes into diabetes mellitus, comparing Type 1 and Type 2.

METABOLISM:
Simply put metabolism is all the chemical reactions that are happening in the body constantly. These chemical reactions in the cells are converting the fuel from the food we eat into energy we need every day. Energy is not only needed for moving our bodies but we also need energy to think and grow.

ANABOLISM:
Also know as constructive metabolism or synthesis reactions. This is where new cells are growing, body tissues are being maintained and the energy is being stored for future use. Larger, more complex molecules are being formed, including carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

CATABOLISM:
Also known as destructive metabolism. It breaks down the molecules of carbohydrates and fats for energy needed by the cells for anabolism, helps to heat the body, contact muscles and make the body move. Waste products are produced then removed through the skin, kidneys, lungs and intestines. An increase in catabolism of stored glycogen, fat and protein comes from hormonal secretions, exercise and fasting.

ENZYMES:
Are the molecules in the digestive system that break up proteins into amino acids, fats into fatty acids and carbohydrates into simple sugars. These are all used for energy by the body when needed. They are absorbed into the blood and transported to the cells. They are used to start the reactions.


BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR): The rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going. The famous quote when talking to a dietician is “calories in vs. calories out”. A person has to watch what he eats and has to exercise to burn off those calories. A proper diet would include a balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins along with regular exercise. Stay away from high fat foods and refined sugars. They can reduce the BMR because they are lower in fiber and bulk. These will slow down the intestinal activity and the body will absorb more calories. Genetic and general physiological factors also affect BMR. Having more muscle mass will help a person burn more calories. More muscle fiber, the higher the BMR. Even at rest the muscles burn more calories than fat or other tissues. Other types of exercises are also needed along with the strength training, including aerobic and cardio workouts. If nothing else get out and walk.

external image raise-metabolism-with-nutrition.jpg


Growth Hormone:
The growth hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth in children and adolescents. It is still secreted in high doses in adults, particularly under fasting conditions and other forms of stress. The growth hormone has an important metabolic effect at all ages. The hypothalamus controls the growth hormone by releasing and inhibiting the hormone. It increases during sleep and decreases during wakefulness.

Acromegaly: is a rare hormonal disorder that develops gradually when the pituitary gland is producing too much growth hormone. It is usually caused by a benign tumor. Having too much of this hormone will cause swelling, skin thickening, tissue growth and bone enlargement. When we see this in children it is called gigantism, because the child is still growing; they become taller and have excess bone growth. In adults, they are done growing in height so other parts of their body start to enlarge.

You are never going to believe me but on Wednesday, we had a patient come in for a cold, which is nothing unusual but there was something different about this person. I thought she had a very large nose and that her head didn’t seem to fit her body. I didn’t know what I was looking at. After Dr. Dan was done he said to me to include acromegaly on the diagnosis. We started talking about this and he states that he was having a hard time concentrating on what the patient was saying because he was checking other things like her hands, fingers were short and fat. Her facial features, nose and jaw, were larger and broader. Her skin was oily. Tongue was thickened and she had a more husky voice. The patient does not know that she has this disease. He was going to tell her but decided since she has an appt with her regular physician next week that the news would be better coming from her. He did talk with her regular physician so she will be prepared for the office visit. She will get a complete work up, including blood work and may even need to have an MRI. She may also need to see a physician specialized in pituitary tumors. Dr. Dan continues to impress me with his knowledge when he goes above and beyond to help the patients that he sees.
Screening for Acromegaly
Screening for Acromegaly

Source: http://www.cs.umass.edu/~elm/papers_by_research.html These pictures were also included in our text book.
First pictures is at age 16. Second pictures is age 33 and third is age 52.


HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE:


Images comparing the interior of a healthy bone with one that has become porous from osteoporosis.
Images comparing the interior of a healthy bone with one that has become porous from osteoporosis.

Parathyroid glands will be stimulated to secrete parathyroid hormone when the Ca2+ in the blood begins to fall. This action will raise the Ca2+ in the blood back to normal. Hypocalcemia can cause muscle twitching, spasms, severe tetany and cardiac abnormalities. Estrogen is also needed for the cartilage growth plates, otherwise known as the epiphyseal discs, to become bone. For proper bone mineralization and to help prevent osteoporosis, estrogen is needed to help stimulate osteoblasts.
Osteoporosis means porous bones. This is when the bones become weak and brittle. Signs and symptoms of osteoporosis include, back pain, loss of height over time, a stooped posture, and fractures of the vertebra, wrist, hips and other bones. People who get osteoporosis may have eating disorders, a sedentary lifestyle, and excessive alcohol consumption and long term use of corticosteroid medications. Risk factors that cannot be changed are being a woman, getting older, a person’s race, family history, how the thyroid is working and how much of the hormone it is secreting. Certain medical conditions can also affect bone health. When a person has had gastrectomy or weight loss surgery, calcium is not absorbed as well. Other conditions that affect bone health are Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, hyperparathyroidism and Cushing’s disease.
The best test to have done to diagnose osteoporosis is by having a Dexa scan done, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry test. It measures the density of the bones in the spine, hip and wrist. It is a very simple and accurate test. There are several medications that can be used to help preserve bone mass and even increase bone density. These include, Fosamax, Boniva, Actonel and Reclast.
Things to do to help with this condition include maintain good posture, prevent falls and manage pain. To keep bones healthy throughout life take in adequate amounts of calcium along with vitamin D and get regular exercise. A person should combine strength training exercises with weight bearing exercises. The strength training will help to strengthen muscles and bones in the arms and upper spine while the weight bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, and skipping rope, will affect bones in the legs, hips and lower spine.

APPLICATION:

Jackie:
1. my BMR is 1631.3
2. my Daily Calorie Needs (for light activity) are 2243.043. To raise my BMR, I need to start exercising a lot more. I need to lower my body fat percentage by doing weight training. Building lean tissue will help to raise the BMR. In addition to weight training, incorporating high intensity cardio into my exercise routine will impact my metabolism. Cardio also takes you into the anaerobic zone of training. It creates an "oxygen debt" so even when you have stopped exercising, your body is still processing waste and recovering, keeping your metabolism elevated. Dietary changes will also help to raise my BMR. Eating whole foods rather than processed foods will make a huge difference. Our bodies need to extract the fiber and nutrients and will have to work harder to absorb them into the bloodstream. Increasing protein intake will also help. Eating more smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day rather than one or two big meals is another way to raise my BMR.
Susan:
BMR is 1418.9
Calorie Calculation = BMR X 1.375 = 1951 total calories
Right now I am doing light activity (very light) because of all the time I am spending in front of my computer for school. Before this semester started, I was walking on the treadmill, lifting weights and doing Pilates 5-6 times a week. I have gained back some of the weight that I had lost and my stomach has returned! So mad at myself but I just could not do it all. I know it helps to exercise to relieve stress but I always felt that I needed to be doing some homework so the exercise was placed on the back burner. I eat way more than 1951 calories in a day. A person can if they are active and can work it off. I know what I have to do now that things are winding down with school and I look forward to it. It will also help to be outside and ride my bike, Stan and I ride all over Watertown. Getting back into the routine is the hardest thing to do but once a person realizes how much better they feel it is easier to continue. I wish I would have. Here is to the summer and getting back into shape!

ESSENTIAL QUESTION: Find a product that says that it will boost your metabolism. Research the physiology behind how it boosts a person's metabolism.

One A Day Women’s Active Metabolism multivitamin.
Complete multivitamin plus more to support: metabolism and energy with key ingredients including B vitamins, Bone strength with more calcium, more vit D and magnesium, Breast health with more vit D.
Supports Metabolism and Energy
Used as part of a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet and exercise. One A Day Women’s Active Metabolism is a complete multivitamin specially formulated with ingredients to help support your metabolism and help you feel energized. Plus, it contains Calcium and Vitamin D to support bone strength and breast health.

Supplement Facts
Serving Size: One tablet


Amount Per Serving
% Daily Value

Vitamin A
(10% as beta- ccarotene)
2500 IU
50%
Vitamin C
60 mg
100%
Vitamin D
800 IU
200%
Vitamin E
22.5 IU
75%
Vitamin K
25 mcg
31%
Thiamin (B1)
2.4 mg
160%
Riboflavin (B2)
2.7 mg
159%
Niacin
10 mg
50%
Vitamin B6
3.2 mg
160%
Folic Acid
400 mcg
100%
Vitamin B12
9.5 mcg
158%
Biotin
30 mcg
10%
Pantothenic Acid
5 mg
50%
Calcium ( elemental)
300 mg
30%
Iron
18 mg
100%
Magnesium
50 mg
13%
Zinc
15 mg
100%
Selenium
20 mcg
29%
Copper
2 mg
100%
Manganese
2 mg
100%
Chromium
120 mcg
100%

Guarana Seed ( powder)
50 mg
*
Caffeine
120 mg
*

*Daily Value not established.
INGREDIENTS:
Calcium Carbonate, Cellulose, Caffeine Powder, Magnesium Oxide, Ascorbic Acid, Ferrous Fumarate, Guarana Seed Powder, Croscarmellose Sodium, dl-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, Maltodextrin, Acacia, Zinc Oxide, Dextrin, Gelatin, Crospovidone, Dicalcium Phosphate, Titanium Dioxide (color), Niacinamide, Silicon Dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D-Calcium Pantothenate, Manganese Sulfate, Cupric Sulfate, Polyethylene Glycol, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Calcium Silicate, Dextrose, Soy Lecithin, Vitamin A Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Folic Acid, FD&C Blue #1 Lake, Beta-Carotene, Sodium Selenate, Biotin, Phytonadione, Cholecalciferol, Tricalcium Phosphate, Cyanocobalamin.
Contains: Fish (cod, pollock, haddock, hake, cusk, redfish, sole, flounder) and Soy.

Guarana Seed powder is also known as- Paulinia cupana, Brazilian cocoa

Guarana has become familiar as a caffeine substitute in many of the energy drinks that are now being consumed. It comes from an evergreen sprawling shrub of the Amazon region, producing red berries that have been used like coffee for centuries. The natives of Brazil still consider the effects of this berry to be supernatural in nature. Some of the uses for Guarana include stimulating the digestive system, reducing fever and treating migraines. Guarana is rich in anti-oxidants and is thought to help strengthen the heart and clean the blood. It is a central nervous system stimulant.
Today chemists argue that the substance is caffeine and is the highest source of caffeine available in nature. Guarana seeds contain 2.5 times the amount of caffeine than coffee does. Some researchers argue that guaranine is better tolerated by the body because it is not water soluble and is released into the bloodstream more slowly.

With the extra boost of caffeine that is in the multivitamin, the manufacturers feel it will keep you energized.


Crash Diets:


People feel that crash diets are a quick way to lose a few pounds. What is really lost is water weight contributed to the body using excess glycogen. Glycogen absorbs excess fluid inside the body. So this is not a true weight loss. People will hit a plateau after so long of being on the diet, no weight will be lost. These individuals may gain some of the weight back that they lost. Crash diets affect a body’s metabolism. A person’s body will adjust to how many calories are being taken in. Fewer calories taken in, the fewer calories the body is going to burn in order to perform the necessary bodily functions. What ends up happening is that it takes fewer calories for a person to gain weight. The body may maintain a decreased metabolism for a number of months after being on a low-calorie diet.


Crash diets can put the person at risk for serious nutritional deficiencies as a result of eating poorly. Including, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, potassium and sodium deficiency. When electrolytes are out of balance nerve and muscle function can be affected. Potassium and sodium are very important for regulating a person’s heart beat. Crash diets are extremely dangerous to vital organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver and brain. These organs rely on the energy it gets from the carbohydrates that are taken in. When carbohydrates and calorie intake are low so the organs cannot get enough energy from these sources the organs begin to burn muscle tissue to be able to get enough adequate amounts of energy to perform their functions.
Healthy Foods
Healthy Foods

All information for this page was found in our book, Human Physiology, 12th Edition, Stuart Ira Fox; Anatomy & Physiology for Dummies, Donna Rae Siegfried, Wiley Publishing, Inc.; Mayo Clinic web site; www.oneaday.com.

http://www.epigee.org/fitness/crash_diets.html; http://www.mountainroseherbs.com/learn/guarana_seed.php; http://www.childrenshealthyfood.com/healthy-food-schools/pics/healthy-foods/fresh-fruit-and-vegetables.jpg